The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) characterises Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as a childhood behavioural problem consisting primarily of disobedience and hostility in pre-teen children. The development of ODD may be linked to the following factors;
Children diagnosed with ODD may exhibit the following behaviours;
Early intervention and treatment of ODD is critical as leaving this condition untreated can lead to the formation of the more serious condition known as Conduct Disorder (CD) which, again, if left untreated, can ultimately lead to a diagnosis of Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) come adulthood. Conduct disorder is the progression to more harmful behaviours such as;
Some researchers estimate that between 25% and 40% of children diagnosed with Conduct disorder in childhood will become diagnosed with Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in adulthood. In fact, according to the DSM-5, a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder in childhood (or a retrospective diagnosis of Conduct Disorder) is a pre-requisite for a diagnosis of ASPD in adulthood. Fortunately, not all children diagnosed with Conduct Disorder will experience the degree of dysfunctionality as those diagnosed with ASPD, however they will still exhibit a degree of social dysfunction and will struggle with day-to-day living and forming and maintaining healthy relationships.
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