During the mid-90’s, psychologists Richard Tedeschi and Lawrence Calhoun suggested that individuals who had endured significant trauma, either singularly or repeatedly, would experience positive growth afterwards.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) characterises Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as a childhood behavioural problem consisting primarily of disobedience and hostility in pre-teen children.
Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a condition whereby an infant or young child was not provided the opportunity to form healthy and secure attachments with their primary care givers (i.e., mothers, fathers, grandparents, pre-school teachers, etc).
Trauma, whether it be emotional, psychological or physical, damages the psyche and can, if left untreated, disrupt daily functioning and coping. The degree to which one experiences the negative effects of trauma can be exacerbated by risk factors or mitigated by protective factors.
It is possible that the cognitive dissonance between the instinctual flee or freeze response and societies perception of what behaviours constitute strong and weak behaviours leads to the creation of insecurity and the subsequent creation of narcissistic defences.
How do they do this? TEAMWORK. Ideally, both parties come into the relationship with the mindset of “This person is taking a risk on me. The odds are against them somewhat because they don’t really know me all that well. What actions can I perform to help increase these odds in their favour and thus make this risk/gamble more appealing to him/her?”
The ‘3C’s’ of psychological hardiness (commitment, control, challenge) supplies an individual with the courage and the willingness to dedicate oneself to transforming stressful events and situations from unwanted and feared catastrophes into needed and desired opportunities for learning, development and growth (Maddi, 2004).
Trauma bonding is the bond which is created as the consequence of intense and prolific emotional experiences with a toxic person. The manipulator in a relationship uses mental, physical or emotional abuse to create a trauma bond which, ultimately, serves to keep the other party from escaping the relationship.